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Landscapes of Japan, 20, Wave-cut cliffs, sea stacks, Pacific Ocean at Kitayamazaki, Rikuchu Coast National Park.

Wave-cut cliffs, sea stacks, Pacific Ocean at Kitayamazaki, Rikuchu Coast National Park

Wave-cut cliffs, sea stacks, Pacific Ocean at Kitayamazaki, Rikuchu Coast National Park. -- This coastline has undergone at least two episodes of crustal uplift. At the present time, wave erosion is forming a wave-cut bench just below the water surface and offshore from the cliffs (the sea stack in the foreground and the isolated smaller rocks showing above the water are remnants on this bench). The level surface notched into the cliffs about halfway up is an older wave-cut bench that has been uplifted to its present position by crustal movement. Evidence of a still earlier episode of uplift is found in the flat surface at the top of the cliffs which is an even older and more extensive wave-cut bench. Note that this top surface is not horizontal but slopes downward toward the ocean in the background. Because it had to be horizontal when formed just below sea level, this indicates that the uplift that raised it was not uniform, but was greater in the foreground.
 
Editorial assistant: Joseph Augustin. Collection librarian: Amy Bryant. Please send any questions, comments, or content corrections to Michael Thiedeman, Professor of Art, Earlham College, Richmond, IN 47374 USA. email address: thiedmi@earlham.edu -- For specific reference to the images in the Landscapes of Japan set, you are invited to contacted Dr. Charles Martin, Professor Emeritus, Dept. of Geology, Earlham College, email address: martich@earlham.edu